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          霍爾傳感器未來的發展方向
            霍爾傳感器是一種基于霍爾效應的器件,它能實現磁電轉換,可用于檢測磁場及其變化?;魻栃m然在1879年才被發現,但是直到20世紀50年代才出現了對其的應用,然而器件成本很高。1965年,人們開始將霍爾傳感器集成進硅芯片中,從而促進了霍爾器件的應用。 
            霍爾器件的發展大致可分為三個階段: 
            第一階段是從霍爾效應被發現到20世紀40年代前期。最初由于金屬材料中的電子濃度很大,霍爾效應十分微弱而沒有引起人們的重視。到了1910年,有人用金屬鉍制成霍爾元件作為磁場傳感器。但是由于當時未找到更合適的材料,研究處于停頓狀態。 
            第二階段是從20世紀40年代中期到半導體技術出現之后。隨著半導體材料、制造工藝和技術的應用,出現了各種半導體霍爾元件,特別是鍺的采用推動了霍爾元件的發展,相繼出現了采用分立霍爾元件制造的各種磁場傳感器。 
            第三階段是自20世紀60年代開始的,隨著集成電路技術的發展出現了將霍爾半導體元件和相關的信號調節電路集成在一起的霍爾傳感器。20世紀80年代后,隨著大規模超大規模集成電路和MEMS技術的發展,霍爾元件從平面向三維方向發展,出現了3端口或4端口固態霍爾傳感器,實現了產品的系列化、加工的批量化和體積的微型化,并得到廣泛應用。 
            霍爾器件有許多優點。它們的結構牢固,體積小,重量輕,壽命長,安裝方便,功耗小,頻率高(可達1MHz),耐震動,不怕灰塵、油污、水汽及煙霧等的污染或腐蝕。 
            按照功能,可將霍爾器件分為霍爾線性器件和霍爾開關器件兩類。 
            線性霍爾傳感器由霍爾元件、線性放大器和射極跟隨器組成,它輸出模擬量。線性霍爾器件的輸出電壓與外加磁場強度呈線性關系。 
            開關型霍爾傳感器由穩壓器、霍爾元件、差分放大器、斯密特觸發器和輸出級組成,它輸出數字量。 
            霍爾器件應用十分廣泛,大致可分為以下幾個方向: 
            一是測量載流子濃度。 
            根據霍爾電壓產生的公式,以及在外加磁場中測量的霍爾電壓可以判斷傳導載流子的極性與濃度。這種方式被廣泛應用于半導體中摻雜載體的性質與濃度的測量上。 
            二是測量磁場強度。 
          只要測出霍爾電壓,即可算出磁場的大小;若知載流子類型,則由電壓的正負可測出磁場方向。反之,若已知磁場方向,則可判斷載流子類型。 
            三是測量電流強度。 
          將霍爾器件的輸出(必要時可進行放大)送到經校準的顯示器上,即可由輸出電壓的數值直接得出被測電流值。這種方式的優點是結構簡單,測量結果的精度和線性度都較高,可測直流、交流和各種波形的電流。但它的測量范圍、帶寬等受到一定的限制。當然,也可采取一些改進措施,例如選擇飽和磁感應強度高的磁芯材料,制成多層磁芯,采用多個霍爾元件來進行檢測等等。這類霍爾電流傳感器的價格相對較低,使用非常方便,已得到廣泛的應用,國內外已有許多廠家在生產。 
            四是測量微小位移。 
            如果霍爾元件的工作電流保持不變,而使其在一個均勻梯度磁場中移動,它輸出的霍爾電壓值只由它在該磁場中的位移量來決定。用霍爾元件測量位移的優點很多,如慣性小、頻響快、質量可靠、壽命長。以微位移檢測為基礎,可以構成壓力、應力、應變、機械振動、加速度、重量等霍爾傳感器。 
            隨著電子技術的進一步發展,業界對霍爾器件提出了一些新的要求: 
            新的器件結構 
            常規霍爾元件要求磁場垂直于霍爾元件,且在整個霍爾元件上是均勻磁場。而在其他情況下,需要根據磁場分布情況,設計各種各樣相應的非平面霍爾結構。其中,垂直式霍爾器件是新開發出來的,具有低噪聲、低失調和高穩定性的特點。 
            新的應用環境要求霍爾器件更加小型化、更高的靈敏度且集成度更高。為了適用于空間較小的檢測環境,例如電動機中的間隙、磁力軸承以及其他像永磁體掃描等需接近測量表面的場合,需要更加小型化的器件。 
            另外,為了檢測更小的變化量,需要靈敏度更高的器件。器件的小型化不僅適應了新的應用環境,也降低了器件成本。 
            國外霍爾傳感器的發展方向就是采用CMOS(互補金屬氧化物半導體)技術的高度集成化,同樣功能可以集成在非常小的芯片內,如信號預處理的最主要部分已在霍爾器件上完成。其中包括前置放大、失調補償、溫度補償、電壓恒定等,并且可以在芯片上集成許多附加功能,如數據存儲單元、定時器A/D轉換器、總線接口等。所有這些都采用CMOS標準,它們開辟了霍爾器件新的應用領域。 
            由于采用了微電子工藝,硅霍爾傳感器能很好地適用于許多工業應用,這極大地推動了霍爾器件的發展。目前,國外霍爾傳感器的研發進展迅速,不僅解決了與EMC(電磁兼容性)器件的協同工作問題,而且感應精度也得到了提高。但是,霍爾傳感器的可靠性將是下一步必須著重考慮的問題。 
            另外,霍爾傳感器的成本較高,因此其應用領域基本鎖定在汽車等高端市場,而對于需求量較大、對成本控制非常嚴格的消費電子市場則受到了成本的限制。相信隨著技術的進一步發展,霍爾傳感器走進手柄等消費電子應用領域將是大勢所趨。 

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