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          關于霍爾電流傳感器的原理及磁飽和問題
            一、霍爾電流傳感器工作原理
           霍爾電流傳感器依據工作原理不同,可分為開環式霍爾電流傳感器和閉環式霍爾電流傳感器。
            1.開環式霍爾電流傳感器工作原理
           開環式霍爾電流傳感器也稱:直放式霍爾電流傳感器、直檢式霍爾電流傳感器等。如圖1,開環式霍爾電流傳感器由磁芯、霍爾元件和放大電路構成。磁芯有一開口氣隙,霍爾元件放置于氣隙出。當原邊導體流過電流時,在導體周圍產生磁場強度與電流大小成正比的磁場,磁芯將磁力線集聚至氣隙處,霍爾元件輸出與氣隙處磁感應強度成正比的電壓信號,放大電路將該信號放大出,該類傳感器通常輸出±10V左右的電壓信號,也有部分傳感器為了增強電磁兼容性,變換為電流信號輸出。
          圖1
            2.閉環式霍爾電流傳感器工作原理
           閉環式霍爾電流傳感器也稱:零磁通霍爾電流傳感器、零磁通互感器、磁平衡式霍爾電流傳感器等。放大電路接受霍爾元件的輸出,并放大為電流信號提供給副邊補償繞組,副邊補償繞組在磁芯中產生的磁場與原邊電流產生的磁場在氣隙處大小相等,方向相反,抵消原邊磁場,形成負反饋閉環控制電路。若副邊電流過小,產生的磁場不足以抵消原邊磁場,放大電路將輸出更大的電流,反之,放大電路輸出電流減小,從而維持氣隙處的磁場平衡。若原邊電流發生變化,氣隙處磁場平衡被破壞,負反饋閉環控制電路同樣會調節副邊輸出電路,使磁場重新達到平衡。宏觀上講,氣隙處將一直維持零磁通,保持磁平衡,這也是零磁通互感器及磁平衡霍爾電流傳感器名稱的來由。
            3.閉環式霍爾電流傳感器與開環式霍爾電流傳感器的主要區別
           A、帶寬區別
           微觀上講,氣隙處的磁場始終在零磁通附近變化,由于磁場變化幅度非常小,變化幅度小,變化的頻率可以更快,因此,閉環式霍爾電流傳感器具有很快的響應時間。實際的閉環式霍爾電流傳感器帶寬通??梢赃_到100kHz以上。而開環式霍爾電流傳感器的帶寬通常較窄。
           B、精度區別
           開環式霍爾電流傳感器副邊輸出與磁芯氣隙處的磁感應強度成正比,而磁芯由高導磁材料制作而成,非線性和磁滯效應是所有高導磁材料的固有特點,因此,開環式霍爾電流傳感器一般線性度角差,且原邊信號在上升和下降過程中副邊輸出會有不同。開環式霍爾電流傳感器精度通常劣于1%。閉環式霍爾電流傳感器由于工作在零磁通狀態,磁芯的非線性及磁滯效應不對輸出造成影響,可以獲得較好的線性度和較高的精度。閉環式霍爾電流傳感器精度一般可達0.2%。
            二、霍爾電流傳感器磁飽和問題
           許多霍爾電流傳感器廠家在其技術資料中也將無磁飽和作為霍爾電流傳感器的一個重要優點來宣傳?;魻栯娏鱾鞲衅鞑粫l生磁飽和幾乎是霍爾電流傳感器自應用以來就得到廣泛認可的主要優點之一。
           事實上,霍爾電流傳感器包含了非線性的磁芯,就已經決定了霍爾電流傳感器在特定情況下,一定會發生磁飽和。
            1、開環式霍爾電流傳感器的磁飽和問題
           下圖為所有高導磁材料的典型磁化曲線示意圖:
          霍爾電流傳感器磁芯的磁化曲線
           圖中,Oa’為起始非線性段,a’a’’為線性段,a’’a為飽和區。眾所周知,為了獲取較好的測量結果,不論是開環式霍爾電流傳感器,還是電磁式互感器,都會將磁化曲線中線性度較好的一段作為工作區間。換言之,只要磁感應強度超出線性區域一定的范圍,就會發生磁飽和。與電磁式互感器相比,開環式霍爾電流傳感器磁飽和原因只有一個,就是原邊電流足夠大。不會因為電流頻率低導致磁飽和,這是霍爾電流傳感器的優點,也是開環式霍爾電流傳感器磁飽和特點。相比之下,電磁式互感器也有一個優點,就是二次負荷足夠小時,即便過載較多,也不會發生磁飽和。
            2、閉環式霍爾電流傳感器的磁飽和問題
           開環式霍爾電流傳感器磁飽和問題較簡單,相比之下,閉環式霍爾電流傳感器磁飽和問題似乎不可理解,因為閉環式霍爾電流傳感器正常工作時,磁芯中的磁通為零,零磁通下,自然不會飽和。然而,這只能將是在正常工作條件下!
           事實上,即便是電磁式電流互感器或開環式霍爾電流傳感器磁飽和問題都是發生在過載,頻率過低,負荷過大等非正常工作條件下,正常工作條件下,都不會發生磁飽和。從閉環式霍爾電流傳感器工作原理可知,零磁通是建立在副邊補償繞組產生的磁場可以抵消原邊導體產生的磁場的前提下。那么,當閉環式霍爾電流傳感器是不是任何情況下都可以維持這個零磁通呢?
           顯然不是!
           A、傳感器未供電的情況下,副邊補償繞組不產生電流,此時,閉環式霍爾電流傳感器相當于一個開環式霍爾電流傳感器,只要原邊電流夠大,就會發生磁飽和。
           B、正常供電,原邊電流過大。這是因為二次補償繞組可以產生的電流畢竟是有限度的,當原邊電流產生的磁場大于副邊補償繞組能夠產生的最大磁場時,磁平衡被打破,磁芯中有磁場通過,原邊電流繼續加大時,磁芯中磁場也隨著增大,原邊電流足夠大時,閉環式霍爾電流傳感器進入磁飽和狀態!
          與電磁式電流互感器及開環式霍爾電流傳感器相比,閉環式霍爾電流傳感器磁飽和現象不易發生,但不等于不會發生,使用不當或長時間過載,也會發生磁飽和。


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