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          霍爾元件為什么是用半導體而不是用金屬材料制作
             霍爾效應是一種磁敏效應,一般在半導體薄片的長度X方向上施加磁感應強度為B的磁場,則在寬度Y方向上會產生電動勢UH,這種現象即稱為霍爾效應。UH稱為霍爾電勢,其大小可表示為: UH=RH/d*IC*B (1) 式中,RH稱為霍爾系數,由導體材料的性質決定;d為導體材料的厚度,IC為電流強度,B為磁感應強度。 設RH/d=K,則式(1)可寫為: UH=K*IC*B (2) 可見,霍爾電壓與控制電流及磁感應強度的乘積成正比,K稱霍爾系數值越大,靈敏度就越高;元件厚度越小,輸出電壓也越大。 霍爾系數:K=1/(n*q)式中,n為載流子密度,一般金屬中載流子密度很大,所以金屬材料的霍爾系數系數很小,霍爾效應不明顯; 而半導體中的載流子的密度比金屬要小得多,所以半導體的霍爾系數系數比金屬大得多,能產生較大的霍爾效應,故霍爾元件不用金屬材料而是用半導體。
             霍爾元件可用多種半導體材料制作,如Ge、Si、InSb、GaAs、InAs、InAsP以及多層半導體異質結構量子阱材料等等?;魻栐且环N基于霍爾效應的磁傳感器。用它們可以檢測磁場及其變化,可在各種與磁場有關的場合中使用。 霍爾元件具有許多優點,它們的結構牢固,體積小,重量輕,壽命長,安裝方便,功耗小,頻率高(可達1MHZ),耐震動,不怕灰塵、油污、水汽及鹽霧等的污染或腐蝕。
             線性霍爾器件的精度高、線性度好;霍爾開關器件無觸點、無磨損、輸出波形清晰、無抖動、無回跳、位置重復精度高(可達μm 級)。采用了各種補償和保護措施的霍爾器件的工作溫度范圍寬。 所謂霍爾效應,是指磁場作用于載流金屬導體、半導體中的載流子時,產生橫向電位差的物理現象。金屬的霍爾效應是1879年被美國物理學家霍爾發現的。當電流通過金屬箔片時,若在垂直于電流的方向施加磁場,則金屬箔片兩側面會出現橫向電位差。半導體中的霍爾效應比金屬箔片中更為明顯,而鐵磁金屬在居里溫度以下將呈現極強的霍爾效應。 利用霍爾效應可以設計制成多種傳感器。

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